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138        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

both cases, certain schools of the liberal arts gradually concen-
trated attention on special branches of study in response to widely-
felt needs and interests, and attempted to give higher instruction
in them.   In both cases, again, the appearance of a great teacher
had a decisive effect on the development of the schools :  in the
first place, by so extending the scope of the subjects studied and
changing the methods of study that ijt was no longer possible to
consider them merely as parts of a course in the arts, and, in the
second place, by attracting great numbers of students and accus-
toming the scholars of Europe to think of a particular city as the
place where  specialized  instruction in certain subjects could
best be got.   Here, in fact, were the beginnings of the universities.
The schools had become studia generalia (to use a term of slightly
later date):   that is, generally recognized places of study open
without local restriction to the students of Europe.     But though
studia generalia, they were not yet universitates in the proper sense
of the word.  At this stage we look in vain for the peculiar features
which  distinguish the medieval universities from the ancient
schools of Athens or Alexandria.   The qualifications that entitled
a man to teach had not yet been settled.   In Bologna any scholar
could teach who could get students to come to him:   in Paris,
the teacher only needed the permission of the Chancellor of Notre
Dame, the head of the cathedral school.   Nor had the masters or
students any of the rights and privileges they afterwards enjoyed
in their corporate capacity.   The chief difference between the
studia and the schools out of which they had developed lay in the
fact that among the pupils of the studia were many who had come
from other lands to get instruction which their own land did not
afford.   It was this difference, seemingly unimportant, which led
to the rise of the universities.

The " universities " in the original meaning of the word were
simply societies (or gilds) of masters or students, formed for the
purpose of mutual help and protection, after the manner of the
gilds of craftsmen which were rising into prominence with the
great impulse to corporate life which made itself felt throughout
Europe in the Twelfth Century. In the Middle Ages a man lived
in a foreign country at his own risk. He had no claim of any kind
on the country into which he had ventured, and his best chance of
security lay in associating himself with his fellow-countrymen in
that country. It was for this reason that in the seats of learning